The significance of automation and robots in all of the manufacturing industries is increasing. Industrial robots have replaced individuals in a wide range of industries. Robots beat humans in jobs that want precision, speed, endurance and reliability. Robots safely perform dirty and dangerous jobs. Traditional manufacturing robotic applications include material handling (pick and place), assembling, painting, welding, packaging, palletizing, product inspection and testing. Industrial robots are employed in a diverse range of industries including automotive, electronics, medical, food production, biotech, pharmaceutical and machinery.

The ISO concept of a manipulating industrial robot is “an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator”. Based on the definition it is usually fixed available or mobile for use in industrial automation applications. These industrial robots are programmable in 3 or more axes. They’re multi-functional devices which can be custom-built and designed to execute a various operations.

The most important aspects of industrial robots is that they may be developed to suit industry specific requirements and can work continuously for years, consistently meeting high manufacturing quality standards. Auto lifespan associated with an industrial robot is approximately 12-16 years. Because of the persistent accuracy industrial robots have grown to be an essential section of manufacturing.

Industrial robots are classified into different categories according to their mechanical structure. The major types of industrial robots are:

Gantry (Cartesian) Robot: They’re stationary robots having three components of motion. They work from an overhead grid which has a rectangular work envelope. They’re mainly employed to perform ‘pick and place’ actions. Gantry robots have their axes above the work making them also perfect for dispensing applications.
SCARA Robots: (Selectively Compliant Articulated Robot Arm) These robots have 4 axes to move. They move in a x-y-z coordinated circular work envelope. You can use them for factory automation requiring pick and set work, application and assembly operations and handling machine tools.
Articulated robots: An articulated robot has rotary joints. It could have from two to 10 or even more interactive joints. Articulated robots are well fitted to welding, painting and assembly.

Basic industrial robot designs could be customized by building different peripherals. End effectors, optical systems, and motion controllers are necessary add-ons. End effectors will be the end-of-arm-tooling (EOAT) attached with robotic arms. Grippers or wrenches which are employed to move or assemble parts are samples of end effectors. End effectors are designed and accustomed to sense and communicate with the external environment. The final effectors’ design is dependent upon the application requirements in the specific industry. Machine Vision systems are robotic optical systems. They’re built-on digital input/output devices and computer networks used to control other manufacturing equipment such as robotic arms. Machine vision is used for the inspection of manufactured goods including semiconductor chips. Motion controllers are utilized to move robots and position stages smoothly and accurately with sub-micron repeatability.

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